Dissertation

Case Study Data Analysis

Gender stereotypes in mass media. Case study: Analysis of the ... Gender stereotypes in mass media. Case study: Analysis of the ...
Mass media play a significant role in a modern world, by broadcasting information in fast pace and giving entertainment to vast audiences. They consist of press, television, radio, books and the Internet.

Case Study Data Analysis

This section will give a short overview of the main steps in undertaking case studies, drawing mainly from yin (2003a)s seminal work on case study research. Later, the concept was extended to include all those procedures which operate with categories, but which seek at least to quantify these categories by means of a frequency survey of classifications (ibid. Therefore, case studies offer the opportunity for a holistic view of a process (patton & appelbaum, 2003, p.

Moreover, the combination of qualitative and quantitative analyses has also been addressed in the field of case study research (see above, sections 3. However, going into greater detail concerning these issues would be beyond the scope of this paper. One of the key features of qualitative content analysis in contrast to classical quantitative content analysis is that the context is also central to the interpretation and analysis of the material.

As a first step a lexico-grammatical definition is attempted, then the material for explication is determined, and this is followed by a narrow context analysis, and a broad context analysis. According to babbie (2001), content analysis can be defined as the study of recorded human communications (p. Grundlagen qualitativer feldforschung methodologie, organisierung, materialanalyse mayring, philipp (2000b).

Krippendorff (2004) identifies the following four sources of error that may lead to a lack of reliability (pp. This section presents the research question underlying the analysis and discussion in the following sections and gives a short outline of the paper, explaining its aim, structure and scope. Besides, an essential feature of theory building is comparison of the emergent concepts, theory or hypotheses with the extant literature because tying the emergent theory to existing literature enhances the internal validity, generalizability, and theoretical level of theory building from case study research (eisenhardt, 1989, pp.

Since arguments concerning the content are judged to be more important than methodical issues in qualitative analysis, validity takes priority over reliability (mayring, 2003, p. As matter of fact, case study as a research strategy comprises an all-encompassing method, which means that a number of methods may be usedeither qualitative, quantitative or both (cf. Case studies do not imply the use of a particular type of evidence and they can be done using either qualitative or quantitative evidence (or both) (eisenhardt, 1989, pp.

Being a little bit more specific he defines qualitative content analysis in the following way an approach to documents that emphasizes the role of the investigator in the construction of the meaning of and in texts. The steps of inductive category development are displayed in figure 2. Introduction the discipline and practice of qualitative research. The procedures of summary, explication and structuring step-by-step reduce complexity and filter out the main points of analysis in an iterative process. In uwe flick, ernst von kardorff & ines steinke (eds.


Expedia Case Study – Amazon Web Services (AWS)


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Case Study Data Analysis

Gender stereotypes in mass media. Case study: Analysis of ... -...
Gender stereotypes in mass media. Case study: Analysis of the gender stereotyping phenomenon in TV commercials
Case Study Data Analysis They consist of press, The procedures of summary. German-speaking countries only (p. The simplest type of evaluation consequently consists of counting the numbers of occurrences per category (assuming there is a relationship between frequency of content and meaning). It is widely accepted that measurement or the methods of measurement should be as objective, As a matter of interest, a common concern about case studies put forward by their critics is that they provide little basis for scientific generalization (yin, 2003a. In fact, the theoretical basis of the first moves towards analyses of contents was harold d. While the first means collecting data in the form of numbers the second means collecting data in the form of words or pictures (ibid. However, Gillham, 2000 gomm, hammersley & foster, 2000 hamel. According to yin (2003a) a major strength of case study data collection is the opportunity to use many different sources of evidence because the use of multiple sources of evidence in case studies allows an investigator to address a broader range of historical, attitudinal, and behavioral issues (yin, 2003a, pp. These must be distinguished from teaching case studiesi.
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    The further development of new quality criteria calls for an analysis of where and what kind of other errors can be made or occur in (conducting) content analysis (ibid). Besides, theory development does not only facilitate the data collection phase of the ensuing case study, the appropriately developed theory also is the level at which the generalization of the case study results will occur. Any kind of social research asserts its claims to fulfill certain quality criteria for measuring and collecting data. If the lack of reliability cannot be attributed to a), b), or c), then the problem is usually with the coders and may perhaps be solved by more careful selection, more thorough training, shorter operation periods, etc. Get unlimited access to videos, live online training, learning paths, books, tutorials, and more.

    More will be said on the topic of coding in sections 4. Mayring (2000a, 6) even speaks of a superficial analysis without respecting latent contents and contexts, working with simplifying and distorting quantification. . In fact, gillham (2000) states that case study is a method, within which different sub-methods are used interviews, observations, document and record analysis, work samples etc (p. Bryman (2004) states that qualitative content analysis is probably the most prevalent approach to the qualitative analysis of documents and that it comprises a searching-out of underlying themes in the materials being analyzed (p.

    These attempts share the conception that qualitative and quantitative methods should be viewed as complementary rather than as rival camps (jick, 1979, p. Therefore, the research question which is to be answered in the course of this paper is the following what is the contribution qualitative content analysis can make as a method of text analysis (for interpreting interview transcripts and other documents) in case study research? Or, put more generally what is the contribution of using qualitative content analysis as an interpretation and analysis method for developing case studies? This paper aims at exploring and discussing the possibilities of applying qualitative content analysis as a (text) interpretation method in case study research. In contrast to this, gläser and laudel (2004)who have modified mayrings approach after experiencing problems when putting the method to practicecontend that the core and central part of the process is what they call extraction (p. Here the text can be structured according to content, form and scaling. Ein versuch über kritische sozialforschung ryan, gery w. Deductive category application works with previously formulated, theoretically derived aspects of analysis, which are brought into connection with the text. However, not only the manifest content of the material is analyzed, but also so-called latent content as well as formal aspects of the material (mayring, 2000b, pp. Interestingly, yin (2003b) in his companion book to his case study textbook (yin, 2003a) speaks of the case study method (pp. Lasswells model of mass communication, and later on also the news transmission model of shannon and weaver (titscher et al. Figure 1 basic proceeding of qualitative content analysis (source author based on gläser & laudel, 1999, p.

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    Four Steps to Analyse Data from a Case Study Method

    The third step involves analysing the case study data by generating a variety of ... propose an approach to the analysis of case study data by logically linking the ...
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    According to them, classical content analysis comprises techniques for reducing texts to a unit-by-variable matrix and analyzing that matrix quantitatively to test hypotheses and the researcher can produce a matrix by applying a set of codes to a set of qualitative data (e. Since this paper only aims to serve as the starting point for a more thorough discussion of the application of qualitative content analysis for case study research, the scope is rather narrow. For this the text is paraphrased, generalized or abstracted and reduced. However, depending on the depth and range of the extant literature, the initial focus of the case study may be quite focused or broad and open-ended. Finally the use of qualitative content analysis for developing case studies is examined and evaluated Buy now Case Study Data Analysis

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    Inter-subjective verifiability is a case in point here. That is why gläser and laudel (1999, abstract) state that qualitative content analysis could be an interesting form of data analysis for projects that aim to start from theory and contribute to it. However, this seems to be rather the description of a general approach to analyzing documents qualitatively. In fact, a theory or theoretical framework first emerges through the inductive approach of studying an empirical case or object, not through a deductive process. Jick, 1979 pp.

    The issue of single- and multiple-case studies will not be discussed in this paper. With safari, you learn the way you learn best. As another fundamental characteristics he puts forth that you do not start out with according to hartley (1994, 2004) data collection and analysis are developed together in an iterative process, which can be a strength as it allows for theory development which is grounded in empirical evidence (p Case Study Data Analysis Buy now

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    Therefore, qualitative content analysis perfectly fits the credo of case study research helping to understand complex social phenomena (see also section 3. The author argues in favor of both case study research as a research strategy and qualitative content analysis as a method of examination of data material and seeks to encourage the integration of qualitative content analysis into the data analysis in case study research. Hence, qualitative content analysis might be an appropriate analysis and interpretation method for case study research. By whatever methods, we choose to study the case (stake, 2000, p. Yin, we can say that using case studies for purposes remains one of the most challenging of all social science endeavors (yin, 2003a, p Buy Case Study Data Analysis at a discount

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    In fact, ryan and bernard (2000) see content analysis as one of the major coding traditions (p. But even before that, different approaches to analysis and comparison of texts in hermeneutic contexts (e. Interviewtechnik und codierung von interviewmaterial wolfram cox, julie, & hassard, john (2005). On second level, triangulation takes place by applying a method of analysis (qualitative content analysis) that has not been particularly developed for this purpose to a different research design (case study research). Obviously, the central part of the processstructuringis derived from classical content analysis, because here, too, units of coding and evaluation are set up and arranged in a schema of categories (titscher et al Buy Online Case Study Data Analysis

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    In fact, qualitative content analysis claims to synthesize two contradictory methodo logical principles openness and theory-guided investigation (gläser & laudel, 1999, p. Stake (2000) concurs, suggesting that case studies have become one of the most common ways to do qualitative inquiry (p. This will help to refine the data collection plans with respect to both the content of the data and the procedures to be followed. Therefore, triangulation can potentially generate what anthropologists call holistic work or thick description (jick, 1979, p. Appelbaum, 2003, p.

    First, case study research as a research strategy within qualitative social research is briefly presented. Therefore, a case study cannot be defined through its research methods, but rather in terms of its theoretical orientation and interest in individual cases (hartley, 2004, p Buy Case Study Data Analysis Online at a discount

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    On the first and more obvious level, data is triangulated by integrating different material and evidence (see section 5. Its development (section 4. Case studies do not imply the use of a particular type of evidence and they can be done using either qualitative or quantitative evidence (or both) (eisenhardt, 1989, pp. In fact, case studies seem to be the preferred strategy when how or why questions are being posed, when the investigator has little control over events, and when the focus is on a contemporary phenomenon within some real-life context (yin, 1981, p. At the same time he seeks to encourage the integration of qualitative content analysis into the important step of data analysis in case study research Case Study Data Analysis For Sale

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    Last but not least, a major issue in designing case study research is the maximization of conditions related to design quality, i. Empirisch begründete theoriebildung, zur logik und methodologie interpretativer sozialforschung kelle, udo (2001, february). Mayring, 2001, -9 tashakkori & teddlie, 1998, pp. Altheide, 1996 mostyn, 1985 ritsert, 1972 rust, 1980 wittkowski, 1994). Gläser and laudel (1999 2004) criticize that the closed, ex ante determined category system is only adapted to the empirical material in a first process cycle with only part of the textsa procedure they disqualify as methodologically arguable and technically too elaborate (p.

    A detailed explanation of these concepts can be found in numerous textbooks on social science methods (e For Sale Case Study Data Analysis

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    The chain of evidence means that a reader. This is again in order to achieve a holistic and comprehensive analysis of complex social phenomena. Research interests knowledge management, international business, international marketing, consumer behavior, qualitative research methods, case study research kohlbacher, florian (2005). On second level, triangulation takes place by applying a method of analysis (qualitative content analysis) that has not been particularly developed for this purpose to a different research design (case study research). Qualitative content analysis takes a holistic and comprehensive approach towards analyzing data material and thus achieves to (almost) completely grasp and cover the complexity of the social situations examined and social data material derived from them Sale Case Study Data Analysis

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